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Treatment plants are a key element in the ROI analysis setup. Once there are water intakes that deliver the water to the treatment plants, a set of processes is responsible for eliminating coarse solids, resulting in a reduction of the pollutant load in the water, seeking to make it suitable for human consumption, or to meet the requirements of current legislation. WaterProof offers default cost functions for the following processes:
|Represents the process in which coagulant is applied to the water to promote the increase in particle size forming floc, to promote settling of particles.|
|Process in which the coagulant is dispersed uniformly and quickly through turbulence formed by hydraulic or mechanical means.|
|Process that relies on channels or structures where the turbulence necessary for floc formation is produced.|
|Process in which the floc already formed separates from the water thanks to the low flow velocity and the floc's own weight, allowing it to fall to the bottom of the tank forming a sludge that must be removed for proper management.|
|Process in which water is passed through a bed (usually sand, or sand and anthracite) so that particles and certain microorganisms are filtered out and retained within the bed.|
|A process in which membranes are used to remove all particles, molecules and microorganisms larger than their pore size. The main classification of advanced filtration establishes four categories: microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis. The differences in each are the minimum pore sizes, being 100 nanometers (nm) for microfiltration, 10 nm for ultrafiltration, 1 nm for nanofiltration and smaller sizes for reverse osmosis.|
|A chemical process in which unwanted dissolved ions in water and effluents – such as nitrate, fluorine, sulfate, and arsenic - are exchanged for other ions with a similar charge. This is done by means of a polymer capable of exchanging ions in a solution that passes through them. These synthetic gel spheres are called 'Ion Exchange Resins'. Process in which reagents, usually chlorine and ammonia, are added to form chloramines, eliminating any microorganisms that may have survived the previous processes and guaranteeing water quality throughout the journey through the distribution network. The final disposal of sludge from the flocculation and filtration processes is carried out by pumping, thickeners, drying beds or belt filters.|
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